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ISCTE-IUL  >  Education  >  LS

Sociological Theory: Major Schools of Thought (2 º Sem 2016/2017)

Code: L5413
Acronym: L5413
Level: 1st Cycle
Basic: No
Teaching Language(s): English, Portuguese
Friendly languages:
Be English-friendly or any other language-friendly means that UC is taught in a language but can either of the following conditions:
1. There are support materials in English / other language;
2. There are exercises, tests and exams in English / other language;
3. There is a possibility to present written or oral work in English / other language.
1 6.0 0.0 h/sem 36.0 h/sem 0.0 h/sem 0.0 h/sem 0.0 h/sem 0.0 h/sem 1.0 h/sem 37.0 h/sem 113.0 h/sem 0.0 h/sem 150.0 h/sem
Since year 2016/2017
Pre-requisites No pre-requisites.
Objectives The period of consolidation of sociology after World War II is shaped by the differentiation of objects, languages and methodologies. In this context, emphasis is given to the articulation between diversity of theories and unity of the disciplinary field. The approach of the contents and the teaching methodologies used have four main objectives: to introduce to the languages that structure the theoretical field of sociology;  to understand the coherence of each theory discussed, and to identify cross-cutting issues that help establishing links between them; to recognize the multiplicity of meanings given to the same vocabulary; to question the relationship between the diversity of the theoretical references and the construction of research objects.

(More details on http://cadeiras.iscte-iul.pt/TS3/ )

Program Introduction:
1.  Authors, Schools of Thought, Theories
2. "Classics" in contemporary theories

I. Strutural-functionalism
1. The "Grand Theory" (Talcott Parsons)
2. "Theories of the Middle Range" (Robert K. Merton)

II: Conflict Theories
1. The functions of the conflict (Lewis Coser)
2. Functionalism superseded? (Ralf Dahrendorf)

III. Symbolic Interactionnism - Erving Goffman
1. From reflexive identity to society (George H. Mead, Herbert Blumer)
2. From the dramaturgy of everyday life to the theory of interaction (Erving Goffman)

IV. Critical Theories
1. The critique of technical and scientific rationality (Max Horkheimer, Herbert Marcuse)
2. The theory of communicative activity (Jürgen Habermas)

(More details on http://cadeiras.iscte-iul.pt/TS3/ )
Evaluation Method Periodic assessment includes two written tests with consultation of the syllabus.

Test 1: 50% of the mark; test 2: 50% of the mark. The quality of the contribution to the discussion in the classroom will be considered in the final calculation of the mark, in the sense that it can justify an increase of the result.

As an alternative: final exam, no consultation material allowed.

(More details on http://cadeiras.iscte-iul.pt/TS3/ )
Teaching Method Methodologies used are based essentially on the reading work to be carried out by the students: reading work to be carried out (a) at home, after more theoretical classes supplying orientation tools, and with a view to more practical classes in which the readings of the students are discussed; (b) in the classroom at the occasion of the periodic assessment assignments.

(More details on http://cadeiras.iscte-iul.pt/TS3/ )
Observations This programme has been originally designed under the supervision of Teresa Sousa Fernandes. A collection gathering a significant part of the articles discussed over the semester is made available to the students, as an indispensable tool for an active participation to the classroom activities, as well as for the work required for assignments. More on this curricular unit is to be found in its Programme, as well as on
Basic Bibliographic Alexander, J. C. (1996), "The Centrality of the Classics", in: Turner (ed.), Social Theory and Sociology.  
Blumer, H. (1981), "G. H. Mead", in: Rhea (ed.), The Future of Sociological Classics.
Coser, L. A. (1956), The Functions of Social Conflict.
Dahrendorf, R. (1958) "Out of Utopia", AJS.
Goffman, E. (1959 / 1993), A apresentação do eu (...).
-(1983), «The Interaction Order», ASR, 48.
Habermas, J. (1981, 1987), "Tendências da juridicização", SPP 2: 185-204.
Horkheimer, M. (1937 / 2003), "Teoría tradicional y teoría crítica" in: Id., Teoría crítica.
Marcuse, H. (1941), «Some Social Implications of Modern Technology», StPhSS.
- (1964), One-Dimensional Man.
Mead, G. H. (1930), "Cooley's Contribution (...)", AJS.
Merton, R. K. (1948), "Discussion", ASR.
- (1968), Social Theory and Social Structure.
Parsons, T. (1948), "The Position of Sociological Theory", ASR.
- (1961), "An Outline of the Social System", in Parsons et al. (eds.), Theories of Society.
Complementar Bibliographic * Referências básicas de enquadramento
Baert, P., e F.C. da Silva ([2010] 2014), Teoria Social Contemporânea, Lisboa, Mundos Sociais.
Coser, Lewis A., (1971), Masters of Sociological Thought. Ideas in Historical and Social Context, San Diego et al., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Cuin, Charles-Henry, e François Gresle (1992, 1995), História da Sociologia, Lisboa, Dom Quixote [ed. original francesa: Histoire de la Sociologie, Paris, La Découverte, 1992].
Ferreira, J. M. Carvalho, João Peixoto, Anabela Soriano Carvalho, Rita Raposo, João Carlos Graça, Rafael Marques (1995), Sociologia, Amadora, Editora McGraw-Hill de Portugal.
Giddens, Anthony, e Jonathan H. Turner (orgs.) (1987), Social Theory Today, Cambridge, Polity.
Turner, Bryan S. (org.) ([2000] 2006), Teoria Social, Lisboa, Difel, 2006 [ed. original inglesa: The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, 2.ª ed., Oxford, Blackwell, 2000].
Ritzer, George (org.) (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Major Classical Social Theorists, Oxford, Blackwell.
Ritzer, George (org.) (2003), The Blackwell Companion to Major Comtemporary Social Theorists, Oxford, Blackwell.
Ritzer, George, e Douglas J. Goodman (2003), Sociological Theory, 6.ª ed., Nova Iorque, McGraw-Hill.
Scott, John (2012), Sociological Theory. Contemporary Debates, 2.ª edição, Cheltenham, Edward Elgar.
Turner, Bryan S. (org.) (2000), The Blackwell Companion to Social Theory, 2.ª ed., Oxford, Blackwell.
Turner, J.H. (2003), The Structure of Sociological Theory, 7.ª ed., Belmont, Call., Wadsworth.
Turner, Jonathan H. (2013), Theoretical Sociology: 1830 to the Present, Londres, Sage.
Waters, Malcolm (1994), Modern Sociological Theory, Londres, Sage.

* Referências para aprofundamento das aulas de enquadramento

* O estrutural-funcionalismo
** Textos originais
Merton, Robert K. (1949, 1968), Social Theory and Social Structure, Nova Iorque, The Free Press (3.ª ed. revista e aumentada, 1968), nomeadamente pp. 73-138, de 1949, "Manifest and latent  functions".

Merton, Robert K. (1976), Sociological Ambivalence and Other Essays, Nova Iorque, The Free Press.
Parsons, Talcott (1937), The Structure of Social Action. A Study in Social Theory with Special Reference to a Group of Recent European Writers, Nova Iorque, The Free Press.
Parsons, Talcott (1951, 1991), The Social System (prefácio de Bryan S. Turner), Londres, Routledge [trad. espanhola: El Sistema Social, Madrid, Revista de Occidente, 1976].
Parsons, Talcott (1966), Societies. Evolutionary and Comparative Perspectives, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.
Parsons, Talcott (1967), Sociological Theory and Modern Society, Nova Iorque, The Free Press.
Parsons, Talcott (1971), The System of Modern Societies, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice Hall.
** Introduções, comentários, debates
Alexander, Jeffrey C. (1983), Theoretical Logic in Sociology, vol. 4, The Modern Reconstruction of Classical Thought. Talcott Parsons, Berkeley, CA, University of California Press.
Chazel, François (2011), La Sociologie Analytique de Talcott Parsons, Paris, Presses de l'Université Paris-Sorbonne.
Crothers, Charles (1987, 1994), Robert K. Merton, Oeiras, Celta, 1994 [orig. ingl.: Robert K. Merton, Routledge, 1987].
Elias, Norbert (1939, 1969, 1989), O Processo Civilizacional. Investigações Sociogenéticas e Psicogenéticas, Lisboa, Dom Quixote, 1989, pp. 11-47 ("Introdução" à edição em inglês de 1969) [ed. original em alemão: 1939; trad. em inglês: 1969].
Hamilton, Peter (1983), Talcott Parsons, Londres, Routledge.
Robertson, Roland, e Bryan S. Turner (1991), Talcott Parsons: Theorist of Modernity, Londres, Sage.
Sztompka, Piotr (1986), Robert K. Merton. An Intellectual Profile, Londres, Macmillan.

* As teorias do conflito
** Textos originais
Coser, Lewis A. (1956), The Functions of Social Conflict, Nova Iorque, The Free Press.
Coser, Lewis A. (1957), "Social conflict and the theory of social change", The British Journal of Sociology, 8 (3), pp. 197-207.
Coser, Lewis A., (1971), Masters of Sociological Thought. Ideas in Historical and Social Context, San Diego et al., Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.
Dahrendorf, Ralf ([1958] 2012), Homo sociologicus, Lisboa, Quetzal [ed. orig. em alemão do artigo principal: 1958].
Dahrendorf, Ralf (1958), "Toward a theory of social conflict", The Journal of Conflict Resolution, 2 (2), pp. 170-183.
Dahrendorf, Ralf (1959), Class and Class Conflict in Industrial Society, Stanford, Stanford University Press.
Dahrendorf, Ralf (1968), Essays in the Theory of Society, Stanford, Stanford University Press.
** Introduções, comentários, debates
Turner, Jonathan H. (1991), Marx and Simmel Revisited. Reassessing the Foundations of Conflict Theory, Aldershot, Edward Elgar Publishing.

* O interaccionismo simbólico e Erving Goffman
** Textos originais
Blumer, Herbert (1969), Symbolic Interactionism. Perspective and Method, Berkeley, University of California Press, em particular: pp. 1-60: "The methodological position of symbolic interaccionism".
Blumer, Herbert, 2004, George Herbert Mead and Human Conduct, edited, with an Introduction, by Thomas J. Morrione, Walnut Creek, CA, AltaMira Press.
Goffman, Erving (1959, 1993), A Apresentação do Eu Na Vida de Todos os Dias, Lisboa, Relógio d'Agua [ed. original inglesa: The Presentation of Self in Everyday Life, Nova Iorque, Anchor Books, 1959).
Goffman, Erving (1961), Asylums: Essays on the Social Situation of Mental Patients and Other Inmates, Nova Iorque, Doubleday.
Goffman, Erving (1961), Encounters: Two Studies in the Sociology of Interaction, Indianapolis, Bobbs-Merrill.
Goffman, Erving (1963), Behavior in Public Places: Notes on the Social Organization of Gatherings, Nova Iorque, The Free Press.
Goffman, Erving (1963), Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, Prentice-Hall.
Goffman, Erving (1967), Interaction Ritual: Essays on Face-to-Face Behavior, Nova Iorque, Anchor Books.
Goffman, Erving (1971), Relations in Public: Microstudies of the Public Order, Nova Iorque, Basic Books.
Goffman, Erving (1974), Frame Analysis. Essays on the Organization of Experience, Nova Iorque, Harper.
Goffman, Erving (1981), Forms of Talk, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press.
Goffman, Erving (1988 / 1999), Os momentos e os seus homens (Yves Winkin org.), Lisboa, Relógio d'Água, 1999 (publ. orig. em Francês: 1988).Mead, George Herbert (1925), "The genesis of the self and social control", International Journal of Ethics, 35 (3), pp. 251-277.
Mead, George H. (1932, 1980), The Philosophy of the Present, edited, with an Introduction, by Arthur E. Murphy, preface by John Dewey, Chicago, The Chicago University Press.
Mead, George H. (1934), Mind, Self, and Society from the Standpoint of a Social Behaviorist, edited, with an Introduction, by Charles W. Morris, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
Mead, George H. (1938), The Philosophy of the Act, edited, with an Introduction, by Charles W. Morris, Chicago, University of Chicago Press.
Mead, George H. (1964), Selected Writings, edited, with an Introduction, by Andrew J. Reck, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
** Introduções, comentários, debates
Bulmer, Martin (1984), The Chicago School of Sociology. Institutionalization, Diversity, and the Rise of Sociological Research, Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Burns, Tom (1992), Erving Goffman, Londres, Routledge.
Fine, Gary Alan (1995), A Second Chicago School? The Development of a Postwar American Sociology, Chicago, The University of Chicago Press.
Habermas, Jürgen (1992), "Individuation through socialization: on George Herbert Mead's theory of subjectivity," em Jürgen Habermas, Postmetaphysical Thinking. Philosophical Essays, Cambridge, Mass., MIT Press, pp. 149-204.
Joas, Hans (1980), G.H. Mead. A Contemporary Re-examination of his Thought, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Manning, Philip (1992), Erving Goffman and Modern Sociology, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Silva, Filipe Carreira da (2008), Mead and Modernity. Science, Selfhood, and Democratic Politics, Lanham, MD, Lexington Books.
Tomasi, Luigi (org.) (1998), The Tradition of the Chicago School of Sociology, Aldershot, Ashgate.

* As teorias críticas
** Textos originais
Adorno, Theodor W. ([1973] 2003), Sobre a Indústria da Cultura, Coimbra, Anglus Novos (ed. original alemã: 1973).
Habermas, Jürgen ([1968] 1987), Knowledge and Human Interests, Cambridge, Polity Press.
Habermas, Jürgen ([1973] 1976), Legitimation Crisis, Londres, Heinemann.
Habermas, Jürgen ([1981] 1984), The Theory of Communicative Action, Londres, Heinemann.
Habermas, Jürgen ([1985] 1990), O Discurso Filosófico da Modernidade, Lisboa, Dom Quixote, nomeadamenta pp. 309-350, "O conteúdo normativo da modernidade".
Habermas, Jürgen ([1988] 2002), "Acções, actos de fala, interacções linguisticamente mediadas e o mundo da vida" e "Para uma crítica da teoria do significado", em Jürgen Habermas (2002), Racionalidade e comunicação, Lisboa, Edições 70, pp. 103-147 e 149-182 (publicação original destes dois capítulos em Nachmetaphysisches Denken, Francoforte, Suhrkamp).
Habermas, Jürgen ([2010] 2009), Fundamentação Linguística da Sociologia, Lisboa, Edições 70, 2010 (recolha de artigos publicados originalmente entre 1971 e 1996, reeditados num volume em alemão em 2009).
Horkheimer, Max ([1937] 2002), Critical Theory. Selected Essays, Nova Iorque, The Continuum Publishing Company
Horkheimer, Max, Theodor W. Adorno (1947 / 1974), La Dialectique de la Raison, Paris, Gallimard.
Herbert Marcuse (1991), One-Dimensional Man. Studies in the Ideology of Advanced Industrial Society, 2.ª ed., Londres, Routledge & Kegan Paul
** Introduções, comentários, debates
Adorno, Theodor W., Hans Albert, Ralf Dahrendorf, Jürgen Habermas, Harald Pilot, Karl Popper (1969 / 1979), Der Positivismusstreit in der deutschen Soziologie, Neuwied / Berlin, Luchterhand [trad. fr. De Vienne à Francfort. La Querelle Allemande des Sciences sociales, Bruxelles, Éditions Complexes, 1979].
Anderson, Perry (1976), Considerations on Western Marxism, New Left Books.
Jay, Martin (1973), The Dialectical Imagination, Boston, Little Brown.
Outhwaite, William (1994), Habermas. A Critical Introduction, Cambridge, Polity.
Thompson, J.B., e David Held (orgs.) (1982), Habermas. Critical Debates, Londres, Macmillan.
Wiggershaus, Rolf (1986), The Frankfurt School: its History, Theories and Political Significance, Cambridge, Polity Press.

* Selecção de algumas obras de outros autores importantes para esta etapa do pensamento sociológico
Arendt, Hannah (1951 / 2004), As origens do totalitarismo, Lisboa, Dom Quixote, 2004 (1ª edição em inglês: 1951), em particular pp. IX-XII, o prefácio à primeira edição, redigido em 1950, e pp. 609-634, o capítulo final, "Ideologia e terror: uma nova forma de governo" (publicado pela primeira vez em 1953).
Kuhn, Thomas S. (1962), The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Chicago, Chicago University Press.
Luhmann, Niklas (1967, 2005), "Iluminismo sociológico", in: Santos, José Manuel (org.), O pensamento de Niklas Luhmann, Covilhã, Ta Pragmata, 2005, pp. 19-70 (ed. original em alemão: 1967].
Mannheim, Karl (1929, 1976), Ideologia e utopia, Rio de Janeiro, 1976 [ed. original em alemão: 1929].
Park, Robert E., Burgess, Ernest W. (1921, 1970), Introduction to the Science of Sociology, Chicago, University of Chicago Press [1.ª ed. 1921, reed. 1970].
Popper, Karl (1945, 1962), A sociedade aberta e os seus inimigos, Lisboa, Editorial Fragmentos [ed. original em inglês: The Open Society and Its Enemies (2 vols.), Londres, Routledge, 1945].
Simmel, Georg (1955), Conflict & The Web of Group Affiliations, Nova Iorque, The Free Press.
Wright Mills, Charles (1959, 1982), A Imaginação Sociológica, Rio de Janeiro, Zahar, 1982 [ed. original em inglês: 1959].